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Lesson 12

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Just as adjectives can describe and modify nouns, adverbs cab modify verbs, adjectives, and many other sentence elements. Like adjectives, adverbs usually follow the word they modify and have only one form.


.xaven yartE nAvU blo
It lives approximately ten days.

.Kenen Kera b'riS
She is very brave.

.recUrtantE selEt ago
The new students write well.

Adverbs answer the questions "how," "when," "where," and "to what extent." Asking these questions is often one of the best ways to figure out what word the adverb modifies, if it's unclear. If we turn the sentence Kenen Kera b'riS, she is very brave, into an appropriate question, "How brave is she?", the answer, very brave, gives us both the adverb and the word it modifies. Thus we know that the adverb is b'riS, very, and that it modifies the adjective Kera, brave. We can ask similar questions for the adverbs in the other two examples as well — How do the students write? They write (selEt) well (ago). How are the ten days that it lives, in other words, to what extent are the days that it lives ten? Those days amount to ten (nAvU) only approximately (blo).

One important class of adverb is an exception to the placement rule: temporal adverbs, those that express an aspect of time or frequency. Unlike most, these adverbs are generally placed before the word they modify rather than after.


.renava preniv mEsen
The master speaks again.

.gaT Ken erTtelrov
I am still a guildsman.

.Atrus xan selen sevtE
Atrus always writes Ages.

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