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Lesson 19
Demonstrative Adjective and Pronoun

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Similar to articles, demonstrative adjectives — this and these, that and those — "point to" specific nouns. We know for sure of one demonstrative adjective in D'ni: the word met which is the equivalent of the English this and these. Like  re or  erT, met doesn't distinguish between singular and plural; the same word is used for both forms. Placement, though, is a more difficult matter — source texts show met in a variety of positions, before and after the noun, attached to and separate from it.

Some general guidelines for placement have emerged, though. When the noun is not modified by any adjectives, met usually comes immediately after the noun as a separate word. When the noun is modified, met usually comes immediately before the noun as a separate word. There is one special case where met is attached to the beginning of the noun as a prefix (when it is a material direct object) but this is an advanced grammar point we won't learn about for a while.

Examples:

.baxanatE met toKituEt rerUA
These maps determine the route.

.met Dova pråDex Kenen oglan
This rocky world is ancient.

In addition to being a demonstrative adjective, met is also a demonstrative pronoun. Remember that pronouns are "placeholder" nouns that stand in for other nouns. The pronouns we've encountered already — subject pronouns like I, you, we, and they — are all implied in the personal endings of verbs. met as a demonstrative pronoun is always third person, singular or plural, and stands in for an explicit noun subject. Take for example the two full sentences above. The subjects of these sentences are baxanatE met and met Dova pråDex respectively. If we replace these subjects with met, we end up with:

Examples:

.met toKituEt rerUA
These determine the route.

.met Kenen oglan
This is ancient.

Note how met is used in both sentences, even though the subject of the first is third person plural, and that of the second third person singular. We can tell whether met is meant to be singular or plural by looking at the personal ending of the verb. Note too that when it is a pronoun, met follows SVO word order and comes before the verb as a separate word.

 
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